• Environmental policy

Environmental policy is a key component of enabling conservation and restoration of the natural environment. It can identify and channel public sector resources as well as the much larger private sector ones through regulation.

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• Sustainable natural resource management

Natural resource management deals with managing human interactions with the natural environment such as forests, wetlands, pastures, water bodies, minerals, flora, and fauna. It recognizes that people and their livelihoods rely on responsible stewardship of these resources. To ensure proper and sustainable management of these resources, management brings together many tools such as land-use planning, water management, biodiversity conservation, and the sustainable deployment of industries like agriculture, mining, tourism, fisheries and forestry.

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• Built environment and the natural environment

Built environment refers to human-made surroundings such as cities, industries, and buildings. It also refers to physical infrastructure–such as roads, bridges, aqueducts, electrical transmission lines, and so on–that are not necessarily in cities. Environmental conservation and restoration requires understanding of the impact such built environment on the natural environment. Relevant topics include solid waste (municipal, industrial, and hazardous), wastewater, energy, transportation, green zones, and more.

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• Information technology and the natural environment

The natural environment and its systems are highly complex. To understand them students and researchers have to rely on information technology such as GIS mapping, remote sensing, satellite tracking, and computer modeling and simulation. All of these technological solutions are coming together in a field sometimes referred to as computational ecology.

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