Module 3: Public Participation in Managing Wild Plant Harvest

This module explores wild plant harvest practices, use and non-use values, and problems and solutions. Use cases are used to explore wild plant harvest, including wild medicinal plant harvest and sustainable harvest practices.

Additional Resources


Armenia Gender Project (2018): Wild Harvst Value Chain Assessment Report. Armenia. With assistance of Internaional Finance Corporation. Armenia.

Batello, Catherina; Avanzato, Damiano; Akparov, Zeynal; Kartvelishvili, Tamar; Melikyan, Andreas (2010): Gardens of biodiversity. Conservation of genetic resources and their use in traditional food production systems by small farmers of the Southern Caucasus. Rome: FAO.

Bharucha, Zareen; Pretty, Jules (2010): The roles and values of wild foods in agricultural systems. In Philosophical transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological sciences 365 (1554), pp. 2913–2926. DOI: 10.1098/rstb.2010.0123.

Bonjour, Sophie; Adair-Rohani, Heather; Wolf, Jennyfer; Bruce, Nigel G.; Mehta, Sumi; Prüss-Ustün, Annette et al. (2013): Solid fuel use for household cooking: country and regional estimates for 1980-2010. In Environmental health perspectives 121 (7), pp. 784–790. DOI: 10.1289/ehp.1205987.

Brown, Greg (2013): The relationship between social values for ecosystem services and global land cover. An empirical analysis. In Ecosystem Services 5, pp. 58–68. DOI: 10.1016/j.ecoser.2013.06.004.

Brown, Greg; Montag, Jessica M.; Lyon, Katie (2012): Public Participation GIS. A Method for Identifying Ecosystem Services. In Society & Natural Resources 25 (7), pp. 633–651. DOI: 10.1080/08941920.2011.621511.

Bussmann, Rainer W.; Sharon, Douglas (2009): Markets, Healers, Vendors, Collectors: The Sustainability of Medicinal Plant Use in Northern Peru. In Mountain Research and Development 29 (2), pp. 128–134. DOI: 10.1659/mrd.1083.

Canedoli, Claudia; Bullock, Craig; Collier, Marcus J.; Joyce, Deirdre; Padoa-Schioppa, Emilio (2017): Public Participatory Mapping of Cultural Ecosystem Services. Citizen Perception and Park Management in the Parco Nord of Milan (Italy). In Sustainability 9, pp. 1–27. DOI: 10.3390/su9060891.

Cruz-Garcia, Gisella S.; Price, Lisa L. (2014): Gathering of wild food plants in anthropogenic environments across the seasons. Implications for poor and vulnerable farm households. In Ecology of food and nutrition 53 (4), pp. 363–389. DOI: 10.1080/03670244.2013.808631.

Egoh, Benis. N.; O'Farrel, Patrick. J.; Charef, Aymen.; Gurney, Leigh. J.; Koellner, Thomas.; Abi, Henry. N. et al. (2012): An African account of ecosystem service provision. Use, threats and policy options for sustainable livelihoods. In Ecosystem Services 2, pp. 71–81. DOI: 10.1016/j.ecoser.2012.09.004.

Elagöz, Vahram (2020): Wild Plant Harvest in Armenia: An Overview of the Sector and Government Strategies on Regulation, Conservation, Protection and Use of Biodiversity. Literature Review. With assistance of AUA Acopian Center for the Environment.

Fagerholm, Nora; Käyhkö, Niina; Ndumbaro, Festo; Khamis, Miza (2012): Community stakeholders’ knowledge in landscape assessments – Mapping indicators for landscape services. In Ecological Indicators 18, pp. 421–433. DOI: 10.1016/j.ecolind.2011.12.004.

FAO (1997): The State of the World's Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture. FAO. Rome.

Grigoryan, Heghine: Analysis of the Legislation and Institutional Framework for Collection of Plant Resources. With assistance of AUA Acopian Center for the Environment. 15.06.2020.

Hovsepyan, Roman; Stepanyan-Gandilyan, Nina; Melkumyan, Hamlet; Harutyunyan, Lili (2016): Food as a marker for economy and part of identity. Traditional vegetal food of Yezidis and Kurds in Armenia. In Journal of Ethnic Foods 3 (1), pp. 32–41. DOI: 10.1016/j.jef.2016.01.003.

Hovsepyan, Roman; Stepanyan-Gandilyan, Nina; Stollberg, Christian (2019): Phytomedicinal Knowledge and “Official” Sources in Tatev (Armenia). In Ethnobiology Letters 10 (1), pp. 23–34. DOI: 10.14237/ebl.10.1.2019.1266.

Kaoma, Humphrey; Shackleton, Charlie M. (2015): The direct-use value of urban tree non-timber forest products to household income in poorer suburbs in South African towns. In Forest Policy and Economics 61, pp. 104–112. DOI: 10.1016/j.forpol.2015.08.005.

MA (2005): Ecosystems and Human Well-being. Health Synthesis. With assistance of Millennium Ecosystem Assessment, World Health Organization. WHO Press. France.

Mark, Arthur S.; G.B., Deepa; Rao, Jagannatha (2017): Sustainable harvesting, value addition and marketing of wild medicinal plants. Designing participatory methods and process of field implementation - case study from Silent Valley and Peechi Wildlife Divisions of Kerala. Kerala, India.

Mark, Arthur S.; G.B., Deepa; Rao, Jagannatha (2018): Sustainable harvesting of NTFPs and medicinal plants. A participatory approach. With assistance of Government of India: Ministry of Environment Forest and Climate Change, Kerala State Council for Science Technology and Environment, KSCSTE - Kerala Forest Reserach Institute Peechi. Edited by A. V. Raghu, M. Amruth, K. V. Muhammed Kunhi, V. P. Raveendran, S. Viswanath.

McLain, Rebecca J.; Hurley, Patrick T.; Emery, Marla R.; Poe, Melissa R. (2013): Gathering “wild” food in the city. Rethinking the role of foraging in urban ecosystem planning and management. In Local Environment 19 (2), pp. 220–240. DOI: 10.1080/13549839.2013.841659.

Menendez-Baceta, Gorka; Aceituno-Mata, Laura; Tardío, Javier; Reyes-García, Victoria; Pardo-de-Santayana, Manuel (2012): Wild edible plants traditionally gathered in Gorbeialdea (Biscay, Basque Country). In Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution 59 (7), pp. 1329–1347. DOI: 10.1007/s10722-011-9760-z.

Mollee, Eefke; Pouliot, Mariève; McDonald, Morag A. (2017): Into the urban wild. Collection of wild urban plants for food and medicine in Kampala, Uganda. In Land Use Policy 63, pp. 67–77. DOI: 10.1016/j.landusepol.2017.01.020.

Poe, Melissa R.; McLain, Rebecca J.; Emery, Marla; Hurley, Patrick T. (2013): Urban Forest Justice and the Rights to Wild Foods, Medicines, and Materials in the City. In Human Ecology 41 (3), pp. 409–422. DOI: 10.1007/s10745-013-9572-1.

Schulp, Catharina J.E.; Thuiller, Wilfried; Verburg, Peter H. (2014): Wild Food in Europe. A Synthesis of Knowledge and Data of Terrestrial Wild Food as an Ecosystem Service. In Ecological Economics 105, pp. 292–305. DOI: 10.1016/j.ecolecon.2014.06.018

Schunko, Christoph; Vogl, Christian R. (2010): Organic Farmers Use of Wild Food Plants and Fungi in a Hilly Area in Austria (Styria). In Journal of ethnobiology and ethnomedicine 6 (17), pp. 1–14. Available online at

Sõukand, Renata (2016): Perceived Reasons for Changes in the Use of Wild Food Plants in Saaremaa, Estonia. In Appetite 107, pp. 231–241. DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2016.08.011.

Stryamets, Nataliya; Elbakidze, Marine; Ceuterick, Melissa; Angelstam, Per; Axelsson, Robert (2015): From economic survival to recreation. Contemporary uses of wild food and medicine in rural Sweden, Ukraine and NW Russia. In Journal of ethnobiology and ethnomedicine 11 (53), pp. 1–18. DOI: 10.1186/s13002-015-0036-0.

Tabuti, J.R.S. (2007): Status of non-cultivated food plants in Bulamogi County, Uganda. In African Journal of Ecology 45 (1), pp. 96–101.

Termote, Céline; van Damme, Patrick; Dhed’a Djailo, Benoît (2011): Eating from the wild. Turumbu, Mbole and Bali traditional knowledge on non-cultivated edible plants, District Tshopo, DRCongo. In Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution 58 (4), pp. 585–618. DOI: 10.1007/s10722-010-9602-4.

Vandebroek, Ina; Reyes-García, Victoria; Albuquerque, Ulysses P. de; Bussmann, Rainer; Pieroni, Andrea (2011): Local knowledge. Who cares? In Journal of ethnobiology and ethnomedicine 7 (35), pp. 1–7. Available online at, checked on 5/21/2020.

Wehi, Priscilla M.; Wehi, William L. (2010): Traditional Plant Harvesting in Contemporary Fragmented and Urban Landscapes. In Conservation biology : the journal of the Society for Conservation Biology 24 (2), pp. 594–604. DOI: 10.1111/j.1523-1739.2009.01376.x.


Image & Internet Sources


Links to Examples Used

Module is Prepared by

Slides and scripts by: Miriam Rueger 

Editors: Nare Krmoyan, Tatev Haroyan, Siranush Harutyunyan, Gohar Shahinyan  

Advisors: Claudia Bieling and Alen Amirkhanian

Editing and Post Production: Argishti Azizyan

Languages: Armenian and English

Publication Year: 2021